Presented without judgment or moralization.

When facts are presented with judgment or moralization, the steps of information gathering and decision making are conflated. If you hear the words “must”, “should”, “have to”, “got to”, or anything like that, consider whether you’re hearing something evaluative.

In the absence of evaluation, the value that you provide is in curating the facts and sharing how they would influence your own actions — this is the Show & Tell habit. That means that you do have room to express an opinion — it’s just that the audience gets a change to deal with the facts independently of your opinion as well.


We’ve got to reduce headcount.

What “good” looks like

Profit margins have decreased.